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Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a mental condition in which a person has:

  • An excessive sense of self-importance

  • An extreme preoccupation with themselves

  • A lack of empathy for others


Cause of this disorder is unknown. Early life experiences, such as insensitive parenting, are thought to play a role in developing this disorder.


A person with this disorder may:

  • React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation

  • Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her own goals

  • Have excessive feelings of self-importance

  • Exaggerate achievements and talents

  • Be preoccupied with fantasies of success, power, beauty, intelligence, or ideal love

  • Have unreasonable expectations of favorable treatment

  • Need constant attention and admiration

  • Disregard the feelings of others, and have little ability to feel empathy

  • Have obsessive self-interest

  • Pursue mainly selfish goals

Exams and Tests

Narcissistic personality disorder is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation. The health care provider will consider how long and how severe the person's symptoms are.


Talk therapy may help the person relate to other people in a more positive and compassionate way.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disorder and how willing the person is to change.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

  • Alcohol or other drug use

  • Mood and anxiety disorders

  • Relationship, work, and family problems

Alternative Names

Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism


American Psychiatric Association. Narcissistic personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;669-672.

Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA, Hopwood CJ. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 39.

Review Date 9/7/2020

Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team

Source: MedlinePlus, National Library of Medicine; NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

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